Laws and regulations are a major tool in protecting
the environment. To put those laws into effect, government agencies
create and enforce regulations. In this section, you'll find
a basic description of how laws and regulations come to be,
what they are, and where to find them, with an emphasis on environmental
laws and regulations. The Indian constitution is amongst the
few in the world that contains specific provisions on environment
|Forest Conservation Act
|Forest (Conservation) Rules
|National Forest Policy
The Forest Act is administered by forest officers
who are authorized to compel the attendance of witness and the
production of documents, to issue search warrants and to take
evidence in an enquiry into forest offences. The forest Act
is administered by forest officers who are authorized to compel
the attendance of witness and the production of documents.
Laws to protect the Wildlife :
The Wildlife Act of 1972 was passed to make
provision for control of wild life by formation of Wild life
Advisory Board, regulation on hunting and establishment of sanctuaries,
The Wildlife (Transaction and Taxidermy) Rules,1973
The Wildlife (Stock Declaration) Central Rules, 1973
The Wildlife (Protection) Licensing (Additional Matters for
Consideration) Rules, 1983
Recognition of Zoo Rules 1992 Wildlife (Protection) Rules, 1995
Wildlife (Specified Plants - Conditions for Possession by Licensee)
Wildlife (Specified Plant Stock Declaration) Central Rules,
|Water Pollution prevention
|The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of
|The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, as
amended up to 1988
|The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules,
|The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) (Procedure
for Transaction of Business) Rules, 1975
|The water (prevention and control of pollution) cess Act,
1977, as amended by Amendment Act, 1991
|The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Rules,
|The Water Act of 1974 was the result of discussions over
a decade between the center and states and was passed by
The Act vests regulatory authority in the state
boards and empowers these boards to establish and enforce effluent
standards for factories discharging pollutants into bodies of
The Water Cess Act of 1977 was passed to help
meet the expenses of the Central and State water boards. The
Act creates economic incentives for pollution control through
a differential tax structure (higher rates applicable to defaulting
units) and requires local authorities and certain designated
industries to pay a cess (tax) for water consumption. To encourage
capital investment in the pollution control, the Act gives a
polluter a 25% rebate of the applicable cess upon installing
effluent treatment equipment and meeting the applicable norm.
The 1988 amendment strengthened the Acts implementation
provisions and a board may take decisions regarding closure
of a defaulting industrial plant. The water act is comprehensive
and applies to streams, inland waters, subterranean waters,
sea or tidal waters. The legislation establishes a Central Pollution
Control Board, and State Pollution Control Boards for Assam,
Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir,
Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tripura and West
Bengal, as well as the Union Territories. Each board, Central
or state, consists of a chairman and five members, with agriculture,
fisheries and government-owned industry all having representation.
|Air - Prevention and Control of
|The air (prevention and control of pollution) act of 1981
|The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules, 1982
|The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) (Union Territories)
The Air Act of 1981, states that all industries
operating within designated air pollution control areas must
obtain a permit from the state board. The states are also required
to provide emission standards for industry and automobiles after
consulting the Central Board.
The Environmental Protection Act (EPA)
The EPA was passed to protect and improve human
environment and to prevent hazards to human beings, other than
plants and property. The EPA was passed to protect and improve
human environment and to prevent hazards to human beings, other
than plants and property. In the wake of Bhopal Gas tragedy,
the government of India enacted the Environmental (Protection)
Act of 1986 (EPA) under Article 253 of the constitution. The
purpose of the Act is to implement the decisions of the United
Nations Conference on Human environment of 1972. The EPA is
an umbrella legislation designed to provide a framework for
Central Government coordination of the activities of various
Central and State authorities established under previous laws,
such as Water Act and Air Act. The scope of the EPA is broad,
with "environment" defined to include water, air, land and the
inter relationships which exists among water, air and land and
human beings and other living creatures, plants, micro-organisms
and property. The law also promulgates rules on hazardous waste
management and handling.
Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control)
This rule aims at controlling noise levels
in public places from various sources, inter-alia, industrial
activity, construction activity, generator sets, loud speakers,
public address systems, music systems, vehicular horns and other
mechanical devices have deleterious effects on human health
and the psychological well being of the people. The objective
of the rule is to regulate and control noise producing and generating
sources with the objective of maintaining the ambient air quality
standards in respect of noise.
e Authority - Notifications Coastal Zone Management
Authority Notifications India's lengthy coast stretches over
6,000 kilometers, supporting numerous fishing communities and
driving the economies of coastal villages, towns and cities.
The legislative framework for controlling marine pollution is
provided by the Territorial Waters, Continental Shelf, Exclusive
economic Zone and Other Maritime Zones Act of 1976.
Development along coastal stretches is severely restricted under
a regime comprising the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) notification
of 1991, the approved Coastal Zone Management Plans (CZMPs)
for each state or region.
Hazardous Substances Act
|Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989
|Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical
|Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous
Microorganisms, Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells
|Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998
|Re-cycled Plastics Manufacture and Usage Rules, 1999.
|Dumping and Disposal of Fly ash Notification.
|Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Amendment Rules,
2000 - Draft Notification
|Municipal Solid Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules,
|Batteries (Management & Handling) Rules, 2001.
|Re-cycled Plastics Manufacture and Usage Amendment Rules,
|Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical
(Amendment) Rules, 2000 - Draft Notification
|Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Amendment Rules,
|the laboratories allowed to use of pathogenic micro-organism
or genetically engineered organisms or cells for the purpose
of research, 2000 Notification.
Hazardous substances pervade modern industrialized
societies. Indian industry generates, uses, and discards toxic
substances. Hazardous substances include flammables; explosives;
heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and mercury; nuclear and
petroleum fuel by product; dangerous microorganism; and scores
of synthetic chemical compounds like DDT and dioxins. Exposure
to Toxic substances may cause acute or chronic health effects.
Toxic substances are extensively regulated in India. The first
comprehensive rules to deal with one segment of the toxics problem,
namely hazardous wastes, were issued by the Central Government
in July, 1989.Radioacctive wastes, covered under the Atomic
Energy Act of 1962, and wastes discharged from ships, covered
under the Merchant Shipping Act of 1958, are explicitly excluded
from the Hazardous Wastes Rules.
For more information about latest Acts and
Laws, Please visit the Acts and Laws Section under the Legislation
from the CoE home page.
LINES FOR CITIZENS
FOR MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Solid wastes (as different from liquid effluents)
are those undesirable, useless and unwanted materials and substances
that arise from human and animal activities. In earlier times,
when population was limited and industrial development scarce.
The major constituents of waste were largely domestic sewage
and agricultural residues. Disposal of such waste was not a
problem since these were biodegradable and plenty of land was
With increasing industrialization and population,
however, solid waste generation has not only increased but its
nature has also changed. Wastes from urban areas and industrial
units contain diverse types of materials. Many of these discarded
materials are often reusable and are often considered as a resource
in another setting. 'Solid waste management 'is a term that
reflects efforts to manage society's waste in a manner that
meets public health and environmental concerns and encourages
private and community attempts to reuse and recycle discarded
Applicability of guidelines
These guidelines are applicable to all citizens, communities,
NGOs, social organizations and generators of municipal solid
Categories of solid wastes
Human beings and animal generate solid wastes in various forms
and from diverse activities. Details of various categories of
solid wastes generally unwanted by society are discussed below:
Municipal solid waste (MSW)
Municipal solid waste comprises of wastes from households including
garbage and rubbish, sanitation waste and street sweepings.
MSW also includes wastes and discarded materials from institutions
and commercial complexes and debris from construction and demolition
These wastes are generated by house hold activities such as
cooking, cleaning, repairs and redecoration and include empty
containers, packaging, clothing, old books, newspapers, old
Solid wastes generated in offices, wholesale stores, restaurants,
hotels, markets, warehouses and other commercial establishments
are classified as commercial wastes.These are further categorized
into garbage and rubbish.
Considerable wastes are generated from institutions
such as schools, colleges hospitals and research institutions.
Such wastes include garbage, rubbish and hazardous materials.
Garbage is a general tem which includes animal and vegetable
wastes associated with various activities like storage, preparation,
sale, cooking and serving of food. These wastes are biodegradable
Residues from the burning of wood charcoal and coke for cooking
and heating in houses, institutions and small industries are
also defined as waste. Ashes consist of a fine powdery residue,
cinders and clinker often mixed with small pieces of metal and
Apart from garbage and ashes, other solid wastes produced in
households, commercial establishments and institutions are termed
Bulky wastes are large household appliances such as cookers,
refrigerators and washing machines as well as furniture, crates,
vehicle parts, tyres, wood, trees and branches, the bulky metallic
wastes are sold as scrap metal but some portion is disposed
of in sanitary landfills.
Street wastes consist of paper, cardboard, plastic, dirt, dust,
leaves and other vegetable matter collected from streets, walkways,
alleys, parks and vacant plots.
Animals die naturally or are sometimes accidentally killed.
It left untended, the carcass will generated nuisance. This
category, however, does not include carcasses and animal parts
from slaughterhouses as these are considered industrial wastes.
Construction and demolition wastes
Construction materials like cement, bricks, cement plaster,
steel, rubble, stone, timber, plastic and iron pipes and major
components of the building industry, About 50% of these materials
are not currently recycled in India and the construction industry
does not appear to be aware of available recycling techniques.
Citizens should be aware of three additional categories of
waste which however require special management and handling.
Wastes from hospitals, clinics and laboratories fall under a
separate regulation called the Biomedical wastes (Management
& Handling) Rules, 1998. Hazardous wastes generated by industries
fall under a specific regulation called the Hazardous wastes
(Management & Handling) Rules, 1989 (as amended).
Citizens should also be aware of the impending threat posed
by E-Waste, which includes old computers, discarded mobiles,
batteries, (using heavy metals like nickel and cadmium), TVs
etc. All these wastes originate in households as well. Their
final destination must be secured in environmentally friendly
treatment and disposal options.
Components of Municipal Solid Wastes
Municipal solid waste contains on an average between 30 to
50% organics (or biodegradables), about 4-6% recyclables and
certain constituents having high calorific (fuel) value. General
constituents present in the municipal solid waste of cities
in India according to the size of population clusters are presented
in Table 1:
Table1: Physical characteristics of municipal solid
waste from Indian cities
|Population Range(in millions
||No. of cities surveyed
||Rubber, Leather and synthetics
||Total compostable matter
||Inert soil debrisInert soil debrisInert soil debrisInert
|0.1 to 0.5
|0.5 to 1
|1.0 to 2.0
|2.0 to 5.0
Note: All values are in percentage and calculated
on wet weight basis
The following polluting materials and substances
are generally found in municipal solid waste:
(a) Thin polythene bags(Carry bags)
Thin polythene coloured bags in municipal waste
are well known to cause hazards to the natural environment and
to animals. These bags contain toxic metals and are non-biodegradable.
They cause damage to municipal drainage systems and storm water
drains by choking. In July 2005, Mumbai city faced a major flood
disaster. One of the reasons given for the flooding was the
blockages created in the drainage system by plastic litter.
When these plastic bags get mixed with MSW,
they are difficult to separate from other waste. If they are
dumped on land with other MSW, they do not get degraded by microorganisms
and will remain in the soil for year's together, preventing
rainwater seepage into the ground. These bags are also reported
to be a cause of the death of many animals that feed on garbage
Plastic bags should not be dumped into municipal
garbage. If segregated at source, they can be recycled.
(b)Organic biodegradable matter
Wasted food or easily biodegradable matter,
when disposed of in MSW, starts decomposing immediately. This
decomposition of food waste takes place due to the activities
of microorganisms which in turn give rise to obnoxious odours.
Such microorganisms are harmful to human health and are responsible
for many diseases. Segregation and disposal of food wastes at
source is therefore to be strongly encouraged if we are to overcome
(c) Paper, glass, plastic and metals
Paper, glass and metals, if mixed with other
MSW, create their own problems in disposal of MSW, these are
therefore to be separated from other MSW at source and dispatched
to be recycled and reused.
(d) Construction and demolition waste
upcoming new construction housing complexes
and similar construction and demolition projects generate wastes
like silt, sand, cement, bricks, iron pipes, cement plaster,
steel, rubble, stone, timber, plastic, etc. Such wastes contribute
to waste volumes in general. They are also very difficult to
segregate from MSW. Since they are non-biodegradable, their
disposal along with biodegradable waste cannot be justified.
They also occupy space at dump sites. Construction and demolition
waste should be disposed of separately. Recycling/ reuse of
such wastes should be encouraged.
5.0 Solid Waste Management
Any solid waste management programme in the
community will emphasize first maximum waste reduction, then
reuse, segregation of the waste at source, recycling, composting
and the use of recycled products.
Waste generated by residential complexes, institutions,
hotel and commercial complexes and offices can be collected
and subjected to various treatment methods within their own
premises. Solid waste segregation, collection, treatment and
disposal management should follow the procedures given below:-
5.1 Waste reduction/ reuse at source
Awareness within the community to reduce the
generation of waste should be increased. Products or packaging
that are unsafe in production, use, post-consumer use, or that
produce or release harmful products when disposed of should
be phased out. Excess packaging and packaging including plastic
and thermocol 5.0 that is difficult to recycle should be eliminated.
Consumers should repair, resell, exchange,
or donate unwanted product as much as possible to avoid disposal.
Non-biodegradable material such as thermocol should be avoided
for decoration of festival. Reduced use of plastic should be
Segregation of Waste
Dry waste should be separated from wet biodegradable
waste. Recyclable waste should be given to agencies, which buy
the waste from the generator and re-route it to the recycling
process units. Non-recyclable waste (inorganic) such as PET
mineral bottles, nitrogen sealed packaging chips, tetrapacks,
thermocol, carbon paper, plastic coated visiting cards and sachets
should be collected in separate containers.
Biodegradable wet waste can be treated with
common methods like yard composting, home composting or vermicomposting.
As per the municipal Solid Waste Rules 2000,
the segregation of waste is to be undertaken as follow:
Waste should be segregated in to three categories:
(1) Organic waste;
(2) Recyclable waste;
(3) Others- inorganic waste.
Detailed classification of solid wastes under
these three categories is given in table 2:-
Table 2: Classification of Wastes
||Others (inorganic/Hazardous Waste)
|• Tea Leaves
• Egg shells
• Kitchen waste
• Fruit peels
• House dust after cleaning
• Shampoo Bottles
• Metal Objects
|• Old medicines
• Fluorescent tubes
• Spray cans
• Fertilizers and pesticide containers
• Shoe polish
• Hospital waste
It is best if the authorities provide different
coloured containers for storing and handling the different kinds
of wastes. The following colours are recommended:
Greencontainer Biodegradable waste * White
container * Recyclable waste The biodegradable waste can be
treated and disposed off/ used as manure in the premises or
it can be given to the local municipality vehicle for further
disposal. The recyclable waste can be sold to the raddiwala
or scrap dealer. MPCB and municipality can be contacted for
disposal of other (inorganic/hazardous) waste. 5.3 Dry waste
recycling Dry waste such as paper, shampoo bottles, glass, note
books, wires, safely pins, caps of mineral bottles, plastic
utensils and toys, etc. can be handed over to rag pickers and
kabaris who can further carry the waste for recycling or reuse.
Some items that can be recycled or reused are given below:-
" Paper Old copies, old books, paper bags, newspapers, old greeting
cards, cardboard box " Plastic Containers, bags, sheets " Glass
and ceramics Bottles, plates, cups, bowls " Miscellaneous Old
cans, utensils, clothes, furniture 5.4 Wet biodegradable waste-
composting Organic wastes left to themselves undergo a slow
process of degradation. The activity is carried out by microorganisms
of different kinds. Composting is a controlled process of decomposition
of organic material by microorganisms into a useful product.
Waste generators can make their own supply of compost in their
own yard using materials that would otherwise be thrown away.
Composting of kitchen and yard wastes at the household and community
level should be encouraged. Composting exercises reduce the
amount of waste material eventually going to municipal solid
waste sanitary landfills. At the same time, finished compost
can be used to improve soil texture, increase the ability of
soil to absorb water and air, suppress weed growth, decrease
erosion, and reduce the need for commercial soil additives/fertilizers.
Waste ingredients that can be effectively used in the composting
treatment process are listed in table 3.
Table 3: Composting ingredients
| Dry leaves and twigs
||Grass and plant clippings
|Dry plant and grass clippings
||Fresh landscape trimmings
|| Fruit peels
Plants and napkins
|Coffee grounds and used tea
| Egg shells
| Waste food
A good mix consists for composting will comprise
of three part " brown" and one part 'greens'.
Moisture: Composting materials
should feel moist but not overly soggy.
Temperature: Compost should
feel warm to the touch except in the cold winter months.
Air: To prevent unpleasant
odours that can occur when materials decompose without oxygen,
compost should be turned regularly to ensure that air is reaching
the centre of the pile.
Dig to pits in the ground having dimensions
of 2ft × 2ft × 2ft. Please note not to increase the depth of
the pit because harvesting of compost becomes difficult. Now
start putting your kitchen or yard waste inside one of the pits.
Do not heap the waste but spread it evenly so as to form a layer.
If kitchen waste is used, then it has to be covered with garden
or yard waste. Sprinkle some water to keep the material moist.
Keep on putting the waste every day layer by
layer. When the material inside the pit reaches a height of
one and a half feet, there will be a steady rise in temperature
in the pite, signaling that the composting process has started.
Once the pit is full, cover it with mud.
Now you can start using the second pit. The
material in the first pit shall be ready in a time of span of
three to four months. The compost will look like dark-black
soil having some parts of half decomposed organic matter. It
can now be safely used for your garden or potted plants.
If you want to be a little more systematic,
you can conduct the same process in bins that are constructed
above the ground. The construction work is done on an RCC base
with ordinary bricks. You can also use any other material to
construct the bins. The bins should have a length of three feet
and a breath of two and a half feet. The height should not be
more than two and a half feet. At this height you can comfortably
move material in and out while remaining outside the bin.
The bins have to be covered with a netting
so as to prevent the entry of insects, birds and animals including
rates. A roof cover is also necessary to prevent water from
entering the bins during the rains. For this, you can cover
the bins with a plastic sheet or construct a tin roof.
The process of making compost from domestic
waste is the same: start using the first bin and put the waste
in layers. Once in a way, sprinkle some water to keep the material
moist. Do not add too much of water so that the material starts
dripping. It will take around 3-4 month for the bin to get full
if it is used by a single family.
When the first bin is full, you start using
the second bin. During this time, the first bin will undergo
the process of composting. There will be an increase in temperature
and reduction in the size of the materials. The volume inside
the bin will reduce and go down by one third. The colour of
the material will start changing, signaling the composting process
in underway successfully.
All types of biodegradable waste can go inside
the bins. Keep out all non-biodegradable waste such as glass,
metal, plastic etc. The compost will be ready after 3 months
and will have a dark black colour. If you turn the material
inside the bin once in 15 days, then the time taken for composting
will be less and the compost shall be ready in 1-2 months. Once
the second bin gets full, the first one will be fully composted.
Remove the compost and start re-using it again. You can keep
repeating the cycle indefinitely.
The dark soil-like compost can be directly
used for plants.
Vermicomposting also can be used for decomposition
of the organic waste, which gives rise to high quality granular
compost by the activity of earthworms.
Guidelines for Waste Management
There is a constitutional obligation of each
citizen under Article 51A(g) to protect the environment. Each
citizen should contribute to protect the environment by reducing,
reusing and recycling solid waste and thereafter managing its
Cleanliness starts from the house. Each citizen
should ensure that the solid waste generated from his/her house
is segregated, stored and disposed of as per the guidelines
provided to protect the environment.
Non government Organizations (NGO's) should
take up initiatives to work with local residents to improve
the sanitation, segregation of waste, garbage management etc.
They can play an active role in organizing surveys, studies
and new technologies to attract private entrepreneurs to take
up solid waste management as a project on a professional level.
NGOs should help to create awareness in the waste management
and to promote education and awareness in schools. NGOs should
involve the community in waste management. NGOs also should
encourage minimization of waste through in-house backyard composting,
home composting, vermicomposting and biogas generation.
Waste Management at Source
Solid waste at source according to the community
and activities therein should be managed as per the guide lines
Do not throw any solid waste in the neighborhood,
on the streets, open spaces, and vacant lands, into the drains
or water bodies.
Keep food waste/ biodegradable waste n a non
corrosive container with a cover (lid).
Keep dry, recyclable waste in a bin or bag
or a sack.
Keep domestic hazardous waste, if and when
generated, separately for disposal at specially notified locations.
Multi-storied building, commercial
complexes, private societies
Provide separate community bin or bins large
enough to hold food/biodegradable waste and recyclable waste
generated in the building or society.
Direct the members of the association to deposit
their waste in community bin.
Use community bins provided by the local body
for deposition of food and biodegradable waste.
Shops, offices, institutions, etc.
If situated in a commercial complex, deposit
the waste in bins provided by the association. Keep dry and
wet biodegradable waste separately.
Hotel & restaurants
The container used should be strong, not more
than 100 litre in size, should have a handle on the top or handles
on the sides and a rim at the bottom for easy handling.
Vegetable & fruit markets
Provide large containers, which match with
transportation system of the local body.
Shop keepers not to dispose of the waste in
front of their shops or open spaces.
Deposit the waste as and when generated into
the large container placed in the market.
Meat & fish markets
Not to throw any waste in front of their shops
or open spaces around. Keep non-corrosive container/ containers
not exceeding 100-litre capacity with lid handle and the rim
at the bottom and deposit the waste in the said containers as
and when generated.
Transfer the container of this container into
a large container provided by the association.
Street food vendors
Not to throw any waste on the street, pavement
or open spaces. Keep bin or bag for the storage of waste that
generates during street vending activity.
Preferable have arrangement to affix the bin
or bag with the hand-cart used for vending.
Marriage halls, community halls, kalyanamandapas
Not to throw any solid waste in their neighborhood,
on the streets, open spaces, and vacant lands, into the drains
or water bodies.
Provide a large container with lid which may
match with the transportation system of the local body and deposit
all the waste generated in the premises in such containers.
Hospitals, nursing homes, etc.
Not to throw any solid waste in their neighborhood,
on the streets, open spaces, and vacant lands, into the drains
or water bodies.
Not to dispose off the biomedical waste in
the municipal dust bins or other waste collection or storage
site meant for municipal solid waste.
Store the waste as per the directions contained
in the Government of India, Ministry of Environment, Biomedical
waste (Management & Handling) Rules. 1998.
Construction/ demolition waste
Not to deposit construction waste or debris
on the streets, footpaths, pavements, open spaces, water bodies
Store the waste within the premises or with
permission of the authorities just outside the premises without
obstructing the traffic preferably in a container if available
through the local body or private contractors.
Compost the waste with in the garden, if possible.
Trim the garden waste once in a week on the days notified by
the local body.
Store the waste into large bags or bins for
handing over to the municipal authorities appointed for the
purpose on the day of collection notified.
Reduction or reuse
Solid waste management programs should be targeted
for reduction in the region's waste streams and should provide
incentives for decreased generation of wastes. Variable garbage
collection rates, based on volume or weight, should be used
to reward those who generate less waste and separate their recyclables
at the source. The use of throwaway/disposable goods should
be discouraged and regulated.
Products or packaging that are unsafe in production,
use, post-consumer use, or that produce or release harmful products
when disposed should be phased out. Excess packaging and packaging
that is difficult to recycle should be eliminated. Manufacturers
of new products and packaging should be required to minimize
waste and toxicity in production and to demonstrate environmentally
sound post-consumer use and disposal.
Product should be made to last as long as
possible by the use of durable designs and materials, and the
availability of repair services and replacement parts. Consumers
should repair, resell, exchange, or donate unwanted product
as much as possible to avoid disposal. Sharing and rental of
tools and equipment is encouraged.
Priority should be given to establish standardized
and refillable containers for beverages and other products.
New beverage containers without the mechanism or market for
reuse or recycling should be prohibited.
Waste management programs should include strong
public education campaigns in source reduction, reuse, recycling
Community solid waste management planning
should be based on an analysis of the quantity and composting
of the area's municipal and commercial waste streams to determine
what can feasibly be managed by source reduction and recycling.
Joint planning by community/environmental groups/recyclers
to minimize contractual problems and other issues involving
municipal personnel and to maximize environmental benefits is
Economic considerations of recycling should
include avoided disposal fees, the avoidance of future clean-up
costs, the costs of future land acquisition, transportation,
and facility development. Disposal cost savings of recycling
programs should be publicized. Disposal surcharges may be used
s means of financing recycling programs.
The establishment of stable markets for recycled
materials is essential. Awareness should be created to promote
procurement of products containing a high content of recycled
and recyclable material, and require that contracts specify
products with the highest practical percentage of recycled content.
Products and packaging materials should be
conspicuously labeled to indicate recycled content, including
post-consumer content, recyclability, toxicity and appropriate
Household and small quantity commercial toxic
and hazardous waste should be segregated, labeled and collected
separately in community-level programs that recycle, treat,
or otherwise safely manage those wastes.
A comprehensive waste management program should
aim to recover all useful materials, with zero trash the ultimate
goal. After source separation of recyclables, remaining salvageable
materials should be recovered from the waste stream.
Discarded tires should be recapped, reused
as rubber, or reclaimed by processing into material for road
surfacing or other uses. Burning of tires is strongly discouraged
to prevent emission of toxic or harmful gases.
Components of the waste stream such as wood
waste, construction and demolition debris, and white goods (e.g,
stoves and refrigerators) should be removed and processed to
recover the material, Refrigerants should be recovered and recycled.
Items, which can be repaired such as furniture,
tools and small appliances, should be recovered and made available
to the public through second-hand shops, charitable organizations
or waste exchanges.
Composting of kitchen and yard wastes at the
household and community level should be encouraged through public
education and dissemination of information on composting. Grass
clippings should be left on the lawn to provide fertilizer and
help conserve moisture.
Organic materials such as kitchen waste, yard
waste, and wet or soiled paper that cannot be recycled should
be composted to produce a useful product. Curb side pick-up
of separated compostable material should be encouraged as part
of the waste management program. Community drop off centre should
be provided if curbside pick-up is available.
If source separation is not used, appropriate
materials should be separated from mixed waste for composting.
Composting should serve to complement programs for recycling
and reuse rather than substituting for these programs.
Land filling should be limited to materials
that cannot be managed through preferable options. Material
entering landfills should be regulated and monitored to prevent
the introduction of any hazardous substances. For land filling
Government authorization is compulsory.
Land filling shall be restricted to non-biodegradable,
insert waste and other waste that are not suitable either for
recycling or for biological processing. Land filling shall also
be carried out for residues of waste processing facilities as
well as pre-processing rejects from waste processing facilities.
Land filling of mixed waste shall be avoided unless the same
is found unsuitable for waste processing. Under unavoidable
circumstance or till installation of alternate facilities, land
filling shall be done following proper norms.
Rules, Acts and Notifications for Solid
The right to live in a clean and healthy environment
is not only a fundamental right guaranteed under Article 21
of our Constitution but is also a right recognized and enforced
by the courts of law under different laws. The Constitution
of India, 1950 the earliest legislation and which is the supreme
law of the land has imposed a fundamental duty on every citizen
of India under Article 51-A (g) to protect and improve the environment.
The obligation on the State to protect the environment is expressed
under Article 48 A. The right to live in a healthy environment
is also a basic human right. The Universal Declaration of Human
Rights, 1948 has declared under Article 3 that everyone has
the right to life and under Article 25 that everyone has a right
to a standard of living adequate for health and well being of
himself and of his family.
At the national policy level, the Ministry
of Environment and forests has notified the Municipal Solid
Waste (Management and Handling Rule) 2000 in exercise of the
power conferred on it under sections 3, 6 and 25 of the Environment
Protection Act, 1986. These Rules shall apply to every municipal
authority responsible for the collection, segregation, storage,
transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid wastes.
Composting of wastes is now a legal requirement
provided under the MSW Rules 2000 for all municipal bodies in
the country. The MSW Rules 2000 requires that "biodegradable
wastes shall be processed by composting, vermicomposting anaerobic
digestion or any other appropriate biological processing for
the stabilization of wastes."
Every municipal authority shall within territorial
area of the municipality, be responsible for the implementation
of the provision of these Rules, and for any infrastructure
development for collection, storage, segregation, transportation,
processing and disposal of municipal solid wastes.
The central Government, to perform its function
effectively as contemplated under sections 6, 8 and 25 of the
environment protection Act, 1986, has also made or issued other
Rules, Notification and Orders that imping upon the environment
safe handling of wastes. These include:
The Bio-Medical Wastes (Management & Handling)
The Recycled plastics (Manufacture and Usage)
Rules, 1999. The plastic Rules:
Prohibit the usage of carry bags or containers
made of recycled plastics for storing, carryng, dispensing or
packaging of foodstuffs.
Prescribe that the minimum thickness of carry
bags made of recycled plastics shall not be less than 20 microns.
Directs the manufacturers of carry bags that
the carry bags and containers shall be in natural shape or white
Stipulate that recycling of plastics shall
be undertaken strictly in accordance with the standards prescribed
by the Bureau of Indian Standards. The manufacturers of recycled
plastics carry bags shall mark their products as "recycled".
This notification also provides that the plastics
industries Association through member units shall undertake
Do's and Don'ts to assist the authorities
Carry your own cloth or jute bag when you
go for shopping.
Say no to all plastic bags as far as possible,
Replace will paper, cloth and jute bags.
Reuse the soft drinks pet bottles.
Segregate the waste in the house as wet and
dry. Keep two garbage bins and see to it that the biodegradable
and the no-biodegradable material is put into separate bins
and disposed of separately.
Dig a compost pit in your garden and put all
the biodegradable waste into it to provide you with rich manure
for your garden.
See to it that all garbage is thrown into the
municipal bin for further disposal of municipal solid waste.
Do not litter on road or in offices, theatres, market places
and/or any other common public places. When you go out, do not
throw paper and other wrappings or even leftover food here and
there, make sure that it is put into a dustbin.
Do not throw the waste/ litter on the streets,
drains, open spaces, water bodies, etc.
Community storage/ collection of waste in flats,
multi-storied building, societies, commercial complexes, etc.
" Manage extra of pet dogs and cats appropriately.
Provide waste processing/disposal at a community
Organise public education and awareness programs.
Increase awareness in children by interesting education programs